Previously, if conservative treatment of varicose veins did not bring the desired results, or complications posed a serious risk to the patient's health, doctors prescribed surgery. In this case, the affected vein is completely removed and after surgery, scars remain on the skin. Modern medicine allows, in certain cases, to replace an outdated surgery with a more advanced laser therapy.
The essence of the impact is that a laser beam with a certain wavelength is directed at the enlarged vein. Blood cells convert the input impulse into thermal energy, as a result of which the affected vein closes, so to speak, and blood begins to circulate through deeper healthy pathways.
At the same time, all adjacent tissues remain undamaged, as the laser beam acts selectively, and the area of the body in which the manipulation is performed does not subsequently cause discomfort due to the disabled vein.
Laser surgery for varicose veins is divided into two types, which are used in different situations. Percutaneous laser correction is used in most cases to treat the venous network, which can be called an early stage of varicose vein development. The procedure is performed without direct contact with the skin and the result does not differ from the other type of procedure, but in this case, the vein should not exceed 3 mm in diameter.
Endovasal laser coagulation (LVL) is the most commonly used, in Europe this procedure has become a priority method of therapy and surgical treatment of varicose veins is gradually falling into the background. The EVLK involves a microscopic incision of the skin through which a light guide is inserted into the damaged vein. This feature allows you to freely "glue" any enlarged vein that does not exceed 1 cm in diameter. The whole process is under the control of ultrasound diagnosis, so the risk of medical error is minimal.
Negative reviews about laser vein coagulation are most often left by people who trusted an inexperienced doctor or ignored the advice of a specialist.
Indications and contraindications
Each procedure has indications and contraindications, which must be indicated by the attending physician. In the case of treatment of varicose veins in the legs with laser coagulation, the specialist should carefully check the preconditions for the procedure.
First, the vein should be widened in the mouth no more than 10 mm, otherwise the therapy will be useless and the problem will return soon.
Second, the vein must have a smooth flow of the trunk so that the light guide passes freely through it from beginning to end.
Third, there should not be too many varicose veins.
Before starting laser treatment, it is necessary to consider the existing contraindications to the procedure:
- tendency to thrombophlebitis;
- any chronic disease in the acute phase;
- circulatory pathology;
- varicose vein more than 1 cm;
- inflammatory processes in the affected area;
- infectious diseases associated with high body temperature;
- low mobility of the patient for health reasons.
If you ignore the existing contraindications, there may be negative consequences that will be much more difficult to eliminate. For the procedure to be successful, you only need to contact a specialized medical institution, which employs experienced and responsible specialists.
How is the procedure
In a preliminary consultation with a doctor, the patient answers all the necessary questions and undergoes an examination in order for the specialist to decide whether laser treatment of varicose veins will help in this case and if it is absolutely necessary. After that, tests are prescribed, and if no contraindications are found, the date of the hearing is announced.
There is no specialized preparation for laser coagulation, but the patient should follow some recommendations of specialists:
- loose and comfortable clothes and shoes should be worn, especially in the last days before the due date;
- a few days before the procedure, you should stop taking medications that affect blood viscosity.
In the first stage, the phlebologist, together with a specialist in ultrasound diagnosis, marks and marks the location of the entire part of the vein affected by the varicose veins in the affected area of the patient's body. This step can vary in length: if the vein is straight and short, the process will only take a few minutes, and if it is often twisted and included in a long section, the marking may take longer.
The second stage is the use of local anesthesia, which is most often used as Novocaine, if the patient is not allergic to it. The doctor, under the control of an ultrasound machine, carefully cuts the affected vein without damaging it. This stage is very important because it not only anesthetizes the procedure but also prevents the laser beams from touching nearby tissues.
Laser varicose vein removal begins with the selection of a radiation regimen suitable for the patient by the phlebologist. A small incision is then made through which a light guide is brought into the vein if endovasal coagulation is performed or the laser acts superficially if the percutaneous method is chosen. With the help of an ultrasound machine, the phlebologist controls the process and moves the laser beam source along the entire length of the dilated vein.
After laser treatment of the veins of the lower extremities, you will need to wear compression underwear for two weeks, and in the first days after the procedure, not only during the day, but also at night. Also, immediately after exposure and then for two weeks, you will need to take walks lasting at least 30 minutes.
Consequences of therapy
In most cases, varicose veins in the legs and other parts of the body are suitable for laser coagulation without side effects and recurrences. At first, the patient may feel discomfort, pain or other discomfort in the affected area, bruising may also appear, but this gradually disappears. Otherwise, you will need the help of a doctor.
If the course of laser treatment of varicose veins in the legs and other parts of the body is interrupted, or the patient has neglected the advice of a specialist, more serious complications may occur. The most harmless of these is the penetration of the infection through an open wound, which is treated with antibiotics. A more serious complication is the appearance of a superficial or deep vein thrombus, which is treated only surgically.